Sevilla had moved into the final Champions League place with a 5-0 success over Rayo Vallecano earlier in the evening, but El Geta held Los Blancos - now six points off second-placed Atletico Madrid - to a draw to return to fourth spot.
Both teams had opportunities to make the breakthrough at the Coliseum Alfonso Perez, but a share of the spoils was probably the right result on balance.
Zinedine Zidane made six changes to the team that started the win over Athletic Bilbao at the weekend. In came Nacho, Sergio Reguilon, Federico Valverde, Isco, Brahim Diaz and Gareth Bale, with Marco Asensio amongst those to drop out in what was an experimental XI with next season in mind.
As for Getafe, the main team news surrounding the home side was the absence of centre-back Djene Dakonam, who was suspended following his red card against Sevilla at the weekend. Damian Suarez and Mathias Olivera were both back from bans of their own, though, and returned to the starting side.
Madrid had a super chance to make the breakthrough inside the first two minutes, but Karim Benzema sent his effort just wide of the far post after breaking into the box.
Getafe responded with a half-chance of their own in the fifth minute, but Olivera's strike was comfortably saved by Keylor Navas, who again started between the sticks.
Opportunities continued to arrive during what was a lively start, although Valverde's effort from outside the Getafe box was never threatening to trouble David Soria.
The score was still goalless approaching the 30-minute mark, but the pace of the match remained high and both teams continued to offer a threat in the final third with plenty of numbers committed forward to each attack.
Navas had to keep out a powerful Mauro Arambarri free kick in the 31st minute during an end-to-end period, but the away side were creating little as Bale and Brahim struggled to make their mark.
Madrid did threaten late in the first half as Benzema had a shot deflected behind before Arambarri had to clear off his own line following a scramble inside the box.
The final chance of the first period also came for Madrid with Bale picking out Benzema, but the Frenchman's strike never had enough power to beat Soria as the two teams headed down the tunnel at 0-0.
Brahim then struck just wide of the Getafe goal down the other end as both teams had opportunities to make the breakthrough in the first five minutes of the second half.
Madrid had another opportunity just before the hour when Isco found himself free inside the Getafe box, but the Spaniard's goal-bound attempt was excellently blocked by Bruno Gonzalez.
Brahim was Madrid's brightest attacker in the second half and continued his impress with his touch and movement, but the same cannot be said for Bale on what was another disappointing night for the Welshman.
Lucas Vazquez and Asensio replaced Brahim and Bale in the 71st minute, but it was Getafe that had the next two chances - the first came for Jorge Molina before Mata tried his luck, and Navas had to be at his best to make a couple of excellent saves.
Both sides continued to commit players forward in the latter stages, but neither could find the back of the net as the points were shared, leaving the two teams third and fourth in the table.
GETAFE (4-4-2): Soria; Bruno, Miquel, Damian, Cabrera; Mata (Saiz 83'), Maksimovic, Arambarri, Olivera (Angel 57'); Duro (Portillo 72'), Molina
REAL MADRID (4-3-3): Navas; Carvajal, Varane, Nacho, Reguilon; Casemiro, Valverde (Kroos 78'), Isco; Brahim (Lucas 71'), Benzema, Bale (Asensio 71')