City struck either side of half time to secure a result which takes Pep Guardiola's side nine points clear at the top of the Premier League table after Arsenal defeated Tottenham Hotspur earlier on Saturday.
The visitors' total of 34 points from 12 games is a new Premier League record, while hosts Leicester suffer their first defeat since the arrival of new boss Claude Puel.
Guardiola handed a start to Vincent Kompany after two-and-a-half months on the sidelines, but the Belgian's return should have lasted just three minutes after he hauled down Jamie Vardy when through on goal, only for the referee to give the centre-back a yellow card.
There was a huge sense of injustice around the King Power, but Leicester responded in positive fashion and matched City during the opening quarter of the game without creating a chance.
City suffered a blow just before the half-hour mark when John Stones pulled up with what appeared to be a hamstring injury, and the defender was immediately substituted by Guardiola, who introduced Eliaquim Mangala into the action.
Chances remained few and far between but just before the half-time whistle, City edged in front through Jesus, who was well placed to convert from close range after good work from Raheem Sterling and Silva.
Soon after the restart Leicester almost found an equaliser through Harry Maguire, who struck the post with Silva beaten on the line, but it did not take long for City to double their advantage.
The visitors stormed down the other end and, after creating a three-on-two situation, Leroy Sane teed up De Bruyne who lashed a thunderous effort past Schmeichel from outside of the penalty area.
Moments later, Jesus forced an excellent save out of Schmeichel with a volley from inside the six-yard box, before Silva fired over from a similar position
It had quickly become a case of how many would City score, but Guardiola would have been content to see his team spray the ball about the pitch and leave Leicester chasing shadows as the game entered the final quarter.
Kelechi Iheanacho was eventually introduced by Puel for an appearance against his former club, but the Nigerian barely made an impact as City set about running the clock down.
Silva wasted a late chance for the visitors, but it mattered little as City coasted through to the full-time whistle to record a 10th successive win in the top flight.