Balotelli recently suffered from conjunctivitis due to a problem with his contact lenses, prompting him to get an operation on his eyes.
The 22-year-old will now miss Italy's matches against Bulgaria and Malta, but could be back in time to face Stoke City on September 15.
"He had a few problems with contact lenses some years ago," surgeon Emanuele Scuri reportedly told Sky Sport Italia.
"We waited for the defect to stabilise over the last four years and this was the right time to have the operation. His eyes did not tolerate the contact lenses and had problems at the start of the season.
"I think in around 10 days he should be ready to play again. Already this morning he asked if he could drive and I suggested he should get a lift until Thursday. We brought the operation forward by a day to avoid paparazzi. This surgery will enable Balotelli to see very well."
Balotelli has made two appearances for City so far this season, but has yet to open his goalscoring account.