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The Belgian international striker, who was signed by the Reds for £11m this summer before being sent back to France, converted a 69th-minute penalty to earn Lille their fourth point from their first two games.
Origi should have opened the scoring on 19 minutes when he headed Florent Balmont's cross wide, and this lucky escape seemed to spur Caen into action as Florian Raspentino and Julien Feret went close in quick succession.
Lille replied with a Marvin Martin shot from distance which flew over the crossbar, but it was Caen who were pressing after the interval as Raspentino forced Vincent Enyeama into a good save and Jordan Adeoti and Bengali-Fode Koita shot wide from good positions.
Dennis Appiah's clumsy defending on 67 minutes gifted Lille the ascendancy as his foul on Origi in the box saw him sent off, and the teenage striker stepped up to tuck the ball into the bottom corner.
Ten-man Caen rarely threatened an equaliser as Lille claimed three points to add to their opening-day draw, but the result was slightly marred by Origi's late withdrawal due to injury.