Martinez joined the club in the summer following Moyes's departure to Manchester United and has helped the Toffees enjoy a solid campaign in the Premier League.
Despite admitting that both managers share certain similarities, Barkley believes that he is learning more under the Spaniard.
"Roberto Martinez has come in and given everyone confidence. He's a positive man and doesn't say anything negative," the England international is quoted as saying by Sky Sports News.
"He's similar to David Moyes as they both like to take over the training session and be the main man but Martinez is more tactical.
"We do a lot more tactical work which is good for me because I'm young and still learning."
Everton's Premier League campaign continues on Saturday at home to Swansea City.