Towards the end of last season, Rooney dropped out of the squad after failing to feature for Manchester United on a regular basis, but the forward's start to his Everton career had suggested that he could be handed a recall by Three Lions boss Gareth Southgate.
However, after being informed by Southgate that he would be selected in the group for the World Cup qualifiers with Malta and Slovakia, Rooney told the national team coach that he was ending his time on the international stage.
In a statement, the 31-year-old said: "It is a really tough decision and one I have discussed with my family, my manager at Everton and those closest to me.
"Playing for England has always been special to me. Every time I was selected as a player or captain was a real privilege and I thank everyone who helped me, but I believe now is the time to bow out.
"Leaving Manchester United was a tough call but I know I made the right decision in coming home to Everton. Now I want to focus all my energies on helping them be successful."
Rooney retires having netted 53 goals - the most scored by an England player - in 119 appearances, while he captained his nation on 23 occasions.