The 29-year-old, who can operate in either central defence or midfield, has been training with the Rams for the last four weeks.
Cisse's international clearance was received late last night and the Mali international has been named in Steve McClaren's starting XI for today's Championship clash with Sheffield Wednesday.
McClaren told the club's official website: "Kalifa has been training with us for the last few weeks and his fitness has improved during that time.
"We're a bit short in midfield at the moment, due to injuries and suspensions, and Kalifa is without a club - so it's an arrangement that works well for both parties."
Cisse, whose previous clubs include Bristol City, Reading, Boavista and Toulouse, has been allocated 34 as a squad number at Pride Park.