The 21-year-old started the final seven games for the Tigers last season, but he has yet to feature this campaign.
"We are delighted with the signing of Liam Cooper," said Spireites manager Paul Cook.
"He is a player that attracts a lot of interest from clubs, and not just in this division.
"Liam brings great experience - he has played in the Championship. With Sam Hird suspended and Neal Trotman injured, it was important that we got someone in immediately. To get a player of Liam's quality is fantastic."
Cooper will go straight into the squad for Saturday's clash with Hartlepool.