Both teams ended up with 10 men after Mikael Lustig and Sam Cosgrove were dismissed, but Rodgers was happy to see his side bounce back from their Europa League exit at the hands of Zenit St Petersburg on Thursday night.
"I thought it was a brilliant win for ourselves," Rodgers told Sky Sports News. "We're 72 hours back from Russia, arguably the toughest place to come away from, and to have an away game so soon afterwards is tough.
"I thought we dealt with everything really well though. The first goal was a really great example of our players' technical qualities on a really difficult surface. It was a great goal, good passing and movement and a great header by Moussa.
"We had more chances in the first half and we controlled things. We showed real resilience and mentality to manage the game when we went down to 10 men and score a brilliant counterattacking goal.
"I'm really proud of the team, it's always going to be a really tough game here. We know the signpost of where we want to go and today was a fantastic win for us."
Celtic return to Premiership action on Wednesday night at home to Dundee before hosting Greenock Morton in the Scottish Cup quarter-finals on Saturday.