Robinho, along with Philippe Coutinho, were drafted into the first XI to replace the Barcelona ace, and the winger almost vindicated Dunga's decision on 16 minutes when his dipping volley dropped narrowly over the bar.
The onslaught continued after the break and Silva went close when his bullet header was saved by Baroja, before Firmino stroked home a second a minute later as Brazil looked in cruise control.
Despite being on the brink of elimination, Venezuela refused to go quietly and Juan Arango went close to increasing anxiety levels among the yellow shirts when his free kick had to be tipped over by Jefferson.
On 85 minutes, Noel Sanvicente's side did manage to pull one back when Miku headed home from close range, but it would not prevent Brazil from marching into the last eight on a night when Dunga's men answered some of the questions surrounding their dependency on Neymar.
Peru advance in second, while Colombia qualify for the quarters as one of the best third-placed teams.