Real Sociedad's win over Real Betis on Friday had seen Diego Simeone's side slip out of the top four, but goals from Antoine Griezmann (2) and Kevin Gameiro saw the hosts return to winning ways in comfortable fashion.
The match saw Simeone become only the second man to oversee 200 La Liga games in charge of Atletico, and the milestone almost got off to a perfect start when Griezmann was the quickest to react to a loose ball inside the area, only to see his shot cleared off the line.
The hosts would not have to wait long for the opening goal, though, as Griezmann made no mistake when played through by Koke in the 10th minute, drilling a clinical low strike across goal and into the bottom corner.
Valencia's recent revival had seen them win three of their last four La Liga games - the same number as they had managed in their previous 15 - but they struggled to create any clear goalscoring chances against a typically sturdy Atletico defence.
Indeed, chances were at a premium for both sides, and it was not until the early stages of the second half that Atletico created their next notable opening.
It proved to be a decisive one too, with Filipe Luis playing the ball inside for Gameiro, whose drive from the edge of the box took a deflection which saw it loop past a helpless Diego Alves in the Valencia goal.
Atletico almost put the game beyond doubt just six minutes later when Griezmann was once again released through on goal, but this time Alves was equal to it and denied the striker when one on one.
Griezmann ensured that he had the last laugh in the duel between striker and goalkeeper, though, adding a third for the hosts with just seven minutes remaining when he quickly raced on to a fortuitous through-ball before slotting his finish past Alves.
Valencia have now won just one of their last 10 La Liga away games, but still sit 10 points clear of the relegation zone courtesy of their recent improvement.
Atletico, meanwhile, end a two-match winless streak to move back into fourth, although they remain 11 points adrift of leaders Barcelona.