The Spaniard was booted out of the Grand Slam two years ago by his Czech opponent, but it was a different story this time as he came from a set down to grab a 4-6 7-6(6) 6-4 6-4 victory.
"I knew I had to keep fighting, waiting for my moment," BBC Sport quotes Nadal as saying. "I made a few mistakes but he was serving very well then the second set was very important. Against Rosol two sets down it would have been very dangerous.
"I never play for revenge, every match is a different match. Today was another match I try to win. My goal was not Rosol it is to play well in the tournament. There was a lot of tension but I think I had a good answer and I think I finished the match playing great."
Nadal arrived at Wimbledon having clinched his ninth French Open title.