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Two years ago, Rosol caused a shock by booting the Spaniard out of the Grand Slam in the early stages, and the Czech started strongly on the grass court once again.
The 28-year-old held his serve well and managed to clinch the first break of the match in the ninth game of the first set to put himself on top and take a one-set lead.
Both players were broken in the second set, forcing the contest into a tie-break, which the world number one was able to edge 8-6 to level on sets.
Nadal began to take control in the third as he secured an early break, despite Rosol saving three break points during the game.
That was enough to push Nadal to a 2-1 lead and he continued his dominance in the fourth by breaking his opponent at the first time of asking.
Despite Rosol halting the Spaniard as he was serving for the match, Nadal was able to take his third match-point chance to wrap up proceedings and move into the third round of the Grand Slam.