The home side went into the match off the back of a famous 3-1 win over world champions Germany, but they couldn't find a way past Michael O'Neill's side as the two teams finished their Euro 2016 preparations with a stalemate.
The visitors were first to threaten in a low-key start to the game when Paddy McNair pulled the ball back for Kyle Lafferty, but his effort was blocked by Peter Pekarik and Northern Ireland's appeals for a handball fell on deaf ears.
Slovakia, who will face both England and Wales at this summer's tournament, created their first chance when Dusan Svento found Vladimir Weiss, but the former Manchester City midfielder could only fire wide of the target.
The match struggled to get into any sort of rhythm as niggly fouls continued to disrupt it, although the hosts were still able to create a good chance when Michal Duris appeared to be in, only to lose the flight of Patrik Hrosovsky's cross and miss the ball entirely.
Lafferty looked like Northern Ireland's main threat going forward, and he almost engineered the opener himself when he took down Craig Cathcart's long pass before firing his half-volley over the crossbar.
Cathcart would not last much longer, however, as the defender was withdrawn with a late injury scare before the tournament to be replaced by Aaron Hughes, who came on for his 100th cap.
As the half wore on, Slovakia began to create the better openings, with Martin Skrtel steering a header off target from a corner before Robert Mak was thwarted when one-on-one with Michael McGovern in the best chance of the match.
The hosts began the second half quickly too, created an opportunity in the very first minute after the restart when Weiss blazed the ball over having been found by Hrosovsky's through-ball.
The midfielder threatened to give his side the lead again shortly afterwards when he won a free kick and then took it himself, with McGovern keeping it out after it had travelled through a crowded penalty area.
O'Neill's side suffered another injury scare when Lafferty was forced off less than 10 minutes into the half, but his replacement Conor Washington almost continued his recent scoring form when he cut inside from the left flank and let fly, only to be denied by the leg of Matus Kozacik.
Slovakia, themselves unbeaten in seven games coming into this one, also came close to grabbing a winner when Ondrej Duda fired over from inside the area before Juraj Kucka lashed a first-time effort of his own past the post after a poor clearance from McNair.
McNair almost forced an own goal at the other end too, but ultimately there was to be no winning goal as both sides extended their respective unbeaten runs in their final warm-up games before this summer's tournament.
Slovakia kick their campaign off against Wales on June 11, while Northern Ireland, whose 12-match run without defeat is the longest of any side who will participate in Euro 2016, take on Poland a day later.