Paulo Dybala scored the only goal of the game for the visitors, who enjoyed the lion's share of possession throughout as they dominated their hosts for long spells.
United did almost steal an equaliser when Paul Pogba curled an effort against the post 15 minutes from time, but it was a rare attacking highlight for the home side.
Find out how all of the action unfolded courtesy of our minute-by-minute updates below.
These are the top two sides in Group H after two games, with Juventus leading the way by two points ahead of their double-header against Jose Mourinho's men.
It promises to be an intriguing encounter this evening, so let's waste no time in getting started with a look at the team news - and spoiler alert, there is a big return to Old Trafford to talk about...
Well, we will get to the prodigal son Cristiano Ronaldo in a short while, but first let's have a look at Manchester United's team as Jose Mourinho resists the temptation to make any changes from the side which drew with Chelsea at Stamford Bridge on Saturday.
That means another start Anthony Martial in the attacking trio, with the French winger having scored twice at the weekend to take his tally to three goals in United's last two games.
Lukaku is a player in growing need of a goal having now gone seven games without one for United, although he did score for Belgium during the international break. Indeed, he has more goals for his country this season than he does for his club.
Mata joins Matic and former Juventus man Paul Pogba in midfield, with Pogba coming up against the Old Lady for the first time since leaving for United.
The World Cup winner has had a hand in all three of United's Champions League goals this season - scoring two and creating another - and this will be a particularly special occasion for him having played 124 times for Juve to help them to four successive Serie A title.
Chong may well have one eye on emulating the rise of fellow academy graduate Marcus Rashford, although only Ajax's Hakim Ziyech has had more shots without scoring in the Champions League this season than Rashford's nine unsuccessful attempts.
Ronaldo's ban was limited to just one match, though, meaning that he is free to face the club he represented 292 times between 2003 and 2009, scoring 118 goals. The Portuguese talisman also helped United to three Premier League titles, a Champions League, an FA Cup and two League Cups in that time.
The five-time Ballon d'Or winner's goal against Genoa at the weekend saw him become the first player to score 400 goals in Europe's top five leagues, and he boasts a good record against former clubs in this competition too.
Indeed, Ronaldo has scored five and assisted two more in his six Champions League games against ex-employers, including a goal in both of his games against United and a winner here at Old Trafford.
Paulo Dybala - who has been linked with a move to Old Trafford - is one of those, fresh from a hat-trick in Juve's last Champions League outing, and he and Ronaldo are joined in the front three by Juan Cuadrado after Mario Mandzukic sprained his ankle in training yesterday.
Indeed, the only two changes throughout the team from the weekend are Dybala in for Mandzukic and Chiellini in for Benatia at the back. Alex Sandro - another who has been linked with United - makes his 50th Champions League appearance.
There is no doubt that this United team also possesses bagfuls of talent, but the problem this season has been making the most of that talent. Confidence is also an issue for the players at the moment, with too many seemingly fearful of making a mistake and therefore not taking enough risks going forward.
Mourinho's men come into this side having won just one of their last six outings across all competitions, which has contributed to them sitting 10th in the Premier League table, already seven points off the top five and nine off Man City and Liverpool.
Mourinho looked destined to be sacked when his side went 2-0 down inside 10 minutes at home to Newcastle, but a three-goal comeback in the final 20 minutes saved his job and another comeback in the second half at Stamford Bridge on Saturday earned them a 2-2 draw which would have been even better but for Barkley's last-gasp equaliser.
It is crucial that United now build on those two stirring results, and particularly at home where they have won just one of their last five games. Victory tonight would hand them back-to-back wins at Old Trafford for the first time this season.
The Red Devils were better on matchday one, though, as Paul Pogba put in a man-of-the-match display with two goals and an assist to give United a 3-0 win over Young Boys.
United are one of only four teams to still boast a 0 in the goals conceded column - alongside Juve, Dortmund and Napoli - and the omens are good if they keep another shutout tonight. On the two previous occasions that they have kept clean sheets in each of their first three group games, they have gone on to reach the final - in 2008-09 and 2010-11.
For example, the Red Devils have only lost one of their last 22 European matches here at Old Trafford, including just one in 14 Champions League outings. The solitary defeat did come at the hands of Sevilla to knock them out in the last 16 last season, though, and the previous home loss before that saw none other than Cristiano Ronaldo score the winner for Real Madrid in 2013.
The striker's addition is surely only going to increase Juve's level of dominance in Italian football - where they have already won an unprecedented seven successive Scudettos - but the main goal now will be success in the Champions League.
Juve won their opening 10 games of the campaign across all competitions, surpass the previous record of eight in 1930-31, although that 100% start did finally come to an end at the weekend.
Even so, the Old Lady still enjoy a four-point lead at the top of Serie A already, picking up 25 points from a possible 27 so far this season. Allegri's side have now won 28 and lost just one of their last 34 league games.
The Old Lady have now lost just two of their last 23 Champions League group games, both of which have come against Spanish opposition. That run also includes 14 wins and seven draws.
As has been the case in recent seasons, though, the Italian champions saw their journey ended by Spanish opposition, with Real Madrid scraping through in a thrilling quarter-final tie. Madrid looked guaranteed for the semis after winning 3-0 in Turin in the first leg, but Juventus fought back at the Bernabeu before Ronaldo's late penalty ended their valiant attempts.
That is Juve's only defeat in their last 12 Champions League away games, though, and in all competitions they are unbeaten in their last 22 matches on the road - including victories over Madrid and Tottenham in the Champions League.
Home and away, the two-time European champions are on an eight-match unbeaten run against Premier League oppositions, winning four of the last five. United, meanwhile, are also unbeaten in their last eight games against Serie A clubs and have won all of their last five home games against Italian opposition. The most recent of those was a 4-0 win over AC Milan in 2009-10.
This is a very interesting match to call considering United's recent improvement, but this is a Juventus side who deserve to be regarded right up there amongst the favourites to lift the trophy this season. Ultimately, Ronaldo could prove to be the difference and as such we're going for an away win.
SPORTS MOLE SAYS: Man Utd 1-2 Juventus
That meeting came in the second group stage of the competition, with United also running out winners in the most recent meeting at Old Trafford courtesy of goals from Wes Brown and Van Nistelrooy again. Pavel Nedved got a late consolation for Juve in a 2-1 defeat.
United's unbeaten record stretches back to four games, including the most famous of the lot when they came back from two goals down to win 3-2 in Turin and seal their place in what would become an historic final in 1999 as United completed the treble.
The two sides have even scored the same number of goals in this fixture - 15 apiece from those 12 matches.
MAN UTD STARTING XI: De Gea; Young, Lindelof, Smalling,Shaw; Mata, Matic, Pogba; Rashford, Lukaku, Martial
JUVENTUS STARTING XI: Szczesny; Cancelo, Bonucci, Chiellini, Alex Sandro; Matuidi, Bentancur, Pjanic; Dybala, Cuadrado, Ronaldo
Ronaldo is involved as he latches on to a pass down the right flank before firing a cross in towards the front post. Cuadrado makes the dart but is followed by Smalling, whose sliding interception only sees the ball pop up nicely for Dybala. The Argentine is free and unmaked, and left with a simple finish as he tucks it into the bottom corner past De Gea!
5 - Paulo Dybala has scored five goals in his last four Champions League games, as many as in his previous 24 UCL apps. Rhythm. #MUFCJuve— OptaPaolo (@OptaPaolo) October 23, 2018
The Italian champions have dominated possession and controlled the vast majority of this game, and in truth could be further ahead having outclassed United so far.
Ronaldo was involved in the goal on his return to Old Trafford as he delivered a cross from the right which Smalling failed to cut out, only turning the ball into the path of Dybala, who tucked away his finish with aplomb.
United, by contrast, have only registered one shot on target, and that was a simple one for Szczesny to collect as he gathered Pogba's header comfortably. Aside from that, there has been very little for the home fans to shout about.
Something needs to change in the coming 45 minutes, although United have produced much better performances in the second half of their last two matches.
Beautiful strike 💥— Football on BT Sport (@btsportfootball) October 23, 2018
Fantastic save 🙌
David de Gea at his very best against Cristiano Ronaldo 👏 pic.twitter.com/9OtIZLM9HQ
Paulo Dybala scored the only goal of the game in the first half, but the 1-0 scoreline flatters United a little in truth, despite Pogba hitting the post with 15 minutes remaining.
Thank you very much for joining Sports Mole for tonight's match as Juventus move to the brink of qualification from Group H courtesy of a 1-0 win over Manchester United at Old Trafford. I will leave you with our match report, and be sure to stick around for reaction too.
From me, though, it is goodbye for now!