Diego Simeone's side, who have reached two Champions League and three Europa League finals in the last 10 years, have only won one of their last seven matches in all competitions.
Atletico also lost two of their six matches in the group stages of this season's competition but still managed to finish second in the section behind Juventus to advance to the round of 16.
Tuesday's clash will be just the second time that these two teams have met in the Champions League in Madrid, with their only previous encounter ending in a 1-1 draw back in October 2008.
Here, Sports Mole looks at how Atletico could line up on home soil.
Atletico were handed a huge fitness boost in Friday's 2-2 draw with Valencia when Alvaro Morata came off the bench having recovered from a muscular problem.
Morata should now lead the line for the Spanish side on Tuesday night with Diego Costa and Joao Felix both unavailable for selection. Costa has recently been pictured in training as he recovers from a neck operation, but the experienced forward will not be involved in this contest.
Former Tottenham Hotspur defender Kieran Trippier will also be unavailable following groin surgery, but key centre-back Jose Gimenez was on the bench against Valencia after recovering from injury and should return to the XI here.
Santiago Arias also played in Atletico's last match having recovered from an adductor problem, and it seems likely that the full-back will start due to Trippier's absence.