The 49-year-old Dutchman will work alongside manager Martin Jol with immediate effect.
The former Manchester United assistant coach took charge of Russian side Anzhi Makhachkala in the summer, but lasted only 16 days in the job before he was sacked.
Meulensteen told Fulham's official website: "I've spent many hours talking with Martin Jol and we share a vision of how football should be played and how players should be developed.
"It's our job to make sure we can bring this vision to life on the pitch for the fans."
Fulham are currently in the relegation zone in the Premier League table after seven defeats from their opening 11 games.
The Cottagers return to league action on November 23 when they play host to Swansea City.