The 48-year-old arrived at Highbury last summer and steered the Cod Army to a fourth-place finish in League One - the club's highest ever league position.
Fleetwood ultimately missed out on promotion via the playoffs having lost to Bradford City in the semi-finals, but Rosler has now put pen to paper on a deal which will keep him at the club until 2020.
"Fleetwood Town is a unique club doing things differently to a lot of other clubs. What excites me about this club is that we have a clear DNA, we make it clear what we stand for and what we are going for in players. I think this clarity impresses me and for me we will have to build a new team after losing some very important players – that excites me," he told the club's official website.
"I look forward to working with the players, the leaders of the club and all the staff members. I enjoy myself here and the most important thing is when at work to enjoy yourself. I think we did really well but this season we must start again on zero and work again on the margins.
"The players have reported back in a very good spirit with a good mentality and we are here to entertain our supporters again. We want to fill the stadium more next season and for that we need our wonderful supporters. I hope they will be with us again next season."
Fleetwood will discover the identity of their opening-day opponents for the 2017-18 season when the League One fixtures are announced at 9am tomorrow.