The Scotland international was an integral part of Steve McClaren's side that reached the Championship playoff final last season as he scored 16 goals in 45 games.
Bryson's performances were also noted by his peers as he was voted into the PFA Championship Team of the Year and will now remain with the Rams until 2019.
McClaren told the club's official website: "It is fantastic news that Craig Bryson has committed his long-term future to Derby County.
"At the end of last season I sat down with our president and chief executive, Sam Rush, and asked him to do his best to retain the core members of the squad, and I am delighted that has been the case."
Bryson had been the subject of a bid from newly-promoted Burnley before signing the new contract at Pride Park.