The 19-year-old defender, who signed a five-year deal at Stamford Bridge last season, has also been loaned out three previous times by the Blues.
Despite struggling to break into Chelsea's first-team squad in recent years, the England Under-21 international is eager to make an impact at the club.
"I'm a Chelsea player and I'm always going to have that belief I can play for Chelsea - that's not going to change," he is quoted as saying by Sky Sports News. "At the end of the day, there are world-class players there at the minute and I'm still really young.
"I'm trying to learn as much as I can with all the loans I've had and take as much experience as I can out of it, so for me it is more about developing as a player and a person and I'll always go back to Chelsea and compete for a place and if it doesn't work out I'll take the experience I've had on loan and from playing games to push my career forward."
Chalobah's loan deal with Burnley is due to run until January.