The Gunners entered the Premier League clash at Stamford Bridge as the underdogs to secure a result after losing each of their first two away league matches of the 2017-18 season.
Arsene Wenger's side held the champions to a 0-0 draw in London, however, and arguably shaded the fixture overall.
Mustafi, who came close to leaving the Emirates Stadium in the summer, has said that his team can take plenty of positives from the draw as they look to bounce back from a difficult start to the campaign.
"We are a team that are willing to learn," Mustafi told Arsenal's official website. "I think that we have to try and build from something and I think we can build form this performance because we were really well organised when we didn't have the ball.
"When we had the ball, we played some brilliant one-touch football. I think we can build from this. We played against the champions of last season and if you play like this, I think you'll get a lot of points. We can build from that."
Arsenal will now switch their attention to the EFL Cup as they prepare to host Doncaster Rovers on Wednesday night.