Federer, who has now won 19 Grand Slam titles, dominated from start to finish against his Croatian opponent, recording a 6-3 6-1 6-4 victory after one hour and 43 minutes of tennis in the English capital on Sunday afternoon.
It took an imperious Federer 37 minutes to claim the opening set - breaking Cilic on two separate occasions.
Cilic, who was competing in his first ever Wimbledon final, received treatment to his left foot during the contest, with the 28-year-old grimacing with pain as the second set got underway.
Federer needed just 25 minutes to move into a two-set lead as he recorded a 6-1 victory in the second, and it looked as if the Swiss would breeze past his Croatian opponent in the third.
As it transpired, Cilic only lost one service game in the final set, but Federer, who has won this year's Wimbledon title without dropping a single set, held his first four service games before serving it out to land a record-breaking title.