Holgersson, 28, who has one international cap with Sweden, was a free agent following his release by Major League Soccer outfit New York Red Bulls.
"Markus had a few options available to him and we are delighted he has chosen to come to Wigan Athletic," Latics manager Uwe Rosler told the club website.
"He brings a wealth of experience together with the versatility to play in a number of positions because of his good technical ability.
"The defence is an area where we needed strengthening and Markus will definitely help the squad moving forwards."
Holgersson will wear the number two shirt for Wigan and, subject to international clearance, could make his debut at Huddersfield Town on Saturday.