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Turkey had the majority of the possession early on with Umut Bulut trying to slice the ball in from a cross, but he could not find the target.
There was another chance for Bulut later in the first half, but his low strike from the centre of the box did not get the better of Latvia goalkeeper Aleksandrs Kolinko.
The best chance of the first half for the hosts fell to Janis Ikaunieks, but his header from close range went behind.
Kolinko was called upon again before the end of the opening 45 minutes when Bulut struck the ball first time following a quick break by the visitors, but the keeper did enough to tip it away.
Arda Turan also had a late effort for Turkey, unleashing a powerful strike from outside the box moments before the half-time whistle, but he failed to test the keeper.
Turkey won a free kick at the start of the second half, and Bilal Kisa launched a rocket from 35 yards out to open the scoring.
Turkey continued to create the majority of the chances, and almost reclaimed the lead in the 64th minute when Adem Buyuk fired a low strike towards the Latvia goal, but Kolinko was on hand again to make the stop.
Turan came close to scoring a winner in the final five minutes when he controlled a long ball forward near the penalty spot, but his header drifted just wide of the left post, leaving the sides to share the points.
Latvia finished the match with 10 men after Gints Freimanis picked up his second booking of the match deep into stoppage time.
The result leaves Turkey without a win from their first three matches of the qualifying campaign, resulting in them sitting bottom in Group A, while Latvia are fourth.