The Oranje lag three points behind second-placed Sweden, whom they face at the Amsterdam ArenA on Tuesday evening.
A 3-1 win over Belarus on Saturday narrowly kept Netherlands' hopes alive heading into their showdown with Sweden but, with a 12-goal swing required, Robben has ruled out any chance of the 1988 European Cup winners making it to Russia.
"This hurts. It is unfortunately part of the sport," he told ONS. "After Sweden's result you can't do anything else other than play with your chest out, but an 8-0 win in Belarus [was not going to] happen. And a 7-0 win at home to Sweden isn't going to happen.
"When you hear [Sweden won] 8-0, that's a big blow. In the first half we did not have many opportunities."
Sweden could still finish top of Group A, though that requires France slipping up at home to Belarus in their final game.