Juventus should have extended their lead just a few minutes later but Mirko Vucinic placed his shot wide from six yards following good work from Arturo Vidal.
The visitors were punished for the wasted chance as Gokhan Inler equalised with a deflected strike on the stroke of half time at the Stadio San Paolo.
Neither side were content settling for a point and the game opened up in the second period, with Marek Hamsik stinging Gianluigi Buffon's palms with a powerful effort from long distance.
Napoli started to dominate as the game entered its closing stages and Edinson Cavani was inches away from putting his side into the lead with a header that flew wide of the target.
However, the hosts had one more clear opportunity to snatch the three points when Buffon pushed Hamsik's shot into the path of Christian Maggio but the winger wasted the chance, firing wide from close range.
Juventus held firm in the final minutes to claim a point and put a dent in Napoli's title hopes.