Rashford, 20, scored a spectacular long-range effort in England's final warm-up match ahead of this summer's tournament - Thursday's 2-0 win over Costa Rica at Elland Road.
Ferdinand was at United while Rashford was coming through the youth system at Old Trafford, and the former centre-back has tipped the attacker to make his mark in Russia.
"It could potentially be a breakthrough tournament for Rashford," Ferdinand told Goal.com. "I do not see him starting the first game for England, but I can see him having an impact at some point in the tournament.
"And I would love that to be the case, because he is a young kid who works hard on his game, is very switched on and very concentrated on improving himself as a footballer. And I think that deserves an element of luck and opportunity."
England will open their World Cup campaign against Tunisia on June 18, and will also take on Panama and Belgium in the group stages of the competition.