The victory was Juventus's 24th in the Italian top flight this season, and it has seen them stretch their advantage over second-placed Napoli to four points. Atalanta, meanwhile, remain down in eighth spot following their eighth defeat of the campaign.
The first opportunity of the match fell to Juventus midfielder Blaise Matuidi in the 19th minute, but the Frenchman, who had reacted first from a corner, saw his effort blocked en route to goal.
The home side did not have to wait long to take the lead, however, with Gonzalo Higuain striking in the 29th minute.
Douglas Costa made the goal as the Brazilian opened up the Atalanta defence with a defence-splitting pass, and Higuain expertly placed the ball into the bottom corner of the net.
Higuain might have doubled the home side's lead early in the second period when he weaved through the Atalanta defence before releasing an effort, but Ertit Berisha was on hand to make a smart save.
Costa was next to try his luck for the Italian champions in the 65th minute, but the Brazilian missed the post after good work from Paulo Dybala, before Miralem Pjanic volleyed over the crossbar 20 minutes from time.
Atalanta were reduced to 10 men in the 79th minute when Gianluca Mancini picked up his second yellow card, and two minutes later Juventus had their second - Matuidi collecting a fine pass from Higuain before slotting into the back of the net, and that was how it finished in Turin.
JUVENTUS (4-3-2-1): Buffon; Lichtsteiner (De Sciglio 50'), Benatia, Chiellini, Asamoah; Matuidi, Pjanic; Manduzkic (Sandro 62'), Dybala, Costa (Barzagli 78'); Higuain
ATALANTA (3-4-1-2): Berisha; Toloi, Mancini, Palomino; Hateboer (Cornelius 70'), De Roon, Haas (Spinazzola 57'), Gosens (Petagna 65'); Cristante; Ilicic, Gomez