Samuel Umtiti's 51st-minute header was enough to propel Les Bleus into their third final appearance since 1998 for a chance to add to their solitary trophy, which was won on home soil 20 years ago.
France withstood nine shots from their European neighbours as Hugo Lloris kept a clean sheet, and Deschamps credited his side's effort at the back.
"It was exceptional," the 49-year-old told reporters. "I'm very happy for my players, we showed character and the right mentality, it was very hard for us tonight. We worked hard defensively.
"We had to take advantage a bit more in the counterattacks, but congratulations to my players and my staff. I feel very proud for my group."