Phil Jagielka was preferred to the Chelsea defender at Wembley despite Cahill being a regular starter prior to this summer's European Championships before injury ruled the 26-year-old out of contention for the tournament.
The former Bolton Wanderers centre-back told The Sun: "I wouldn't say I was surprised when I didn't play against Ukraine. I was more disappointed and frustrated. It feels like things are out of my hands again.
"You think you're progressing, then all of a sudden you're back to square one. That's the way I feel at the minute.
"It's just a matter of fighting back to where I want to be. The only way I can do that is by getting my head down, working hard for my club and going again."
Cahill has represented England on nine occasions.