Barton, who is currently on loan at Marseille, was teammates with Nolan at Newcastle United and has admitted his surprise at the snub of the now-West Ham United midfielder.
"Good to see Leon Osman get a call up, about time. My brain is asking why no Kevin Nolan? Surely, he warrants a call up more than most? On Premier League goals alone, consistently for the last 8 yrs, he deserves at least a call-up," Barton tweeted.
"Not a fan of the latest craze, giving caps out so as players don't go and play for other countries. Doesn't sit well with me that..."
England face Sweden in a friendly match on Wednesday.