Butland is expected to make his debut in tonight's match against Blackpool at Bloomfield Road.
I'm very excited to be here," the 21-year-old told Derby's official website.
"You can't ask for much more, they've been extremely good so far this season and I'm hoping to come in and help continue that form.
"It's a great club to be at, a great fan support, stadium, facilities and a great squad so I'm happy to be a part of it and hopefully get a win and keep the smiles."
Butland has made just six appearances for Stoke since joining them from Birmingham City in January 2013.