The 21-year-old, who has one England cap to his name, joins the Rams on a 28-day deal to act as cover for injured number-one Lee Grant after he sustained an ankle problem over the weekend.
"Jack is a promising young goalkeeper and after Lee Grant picked up an injury on Saturday, as a management team, we quickly set about identifying someone to come into the group," Rams boss Steve McClaren told the club website.
"We know a lot about Jack and he is someone who Eric Steele (Derby's goalkeeping coach) rates very highly."
It is a third loan move away from Premier League outfit Stoke for Butland since he joined the Potters from Birmingham City in January last year. He should make his Derby debut at Blackpool tomorrow night.