The 48-year-old, who returned to the Ricoh Arena for a second spell as Sky Blues manager in March 2017, has put pen to paper on an undisclosed deal.
Robins has also tasted victory in the Football League Trophy during his 15 months at the helm, and he is overjoyed after agreeing fresh terms.
"I am delighted to extend my commitment to Coventry City Football Club and its supporters," he told City's official website. "The change from when I took over last March has been massive, both in terms of performances and the atmosphere around the club and the city. Since I've come back the supporters have backed me and the players 100%, and for me the re-connection between the players and the supporters is so important.
"To see so many at Wembley and on the streets of Coventry was fantastic for everyone connected with the club. Now that I have committed to a new deal, I want supporters and the community as a whole to commit to us too. Taking 40,000 last year to Wembley, 37,000 this year and the numbers on the streets for the bus parade goes to show the support and passion that exists for this great football club.
"There is one way for us to be successful, and that is together. We need to keep moving forward together. We don't want to sit in League One, we want to be pushing for promotion again to the Championship. I can tell you that every penny spent on season tickets will be seen on the pitch and supporting our team and development.
"We have a good basis to build from for next season, and fans will see new faces and more quality which will help us achieve our aims. This has been an unbelievably rewarding experience for all of us – myself, Adi, the players, staff, fans and the wider community. Let's make sure this continues next season and for years to come, and for this club to rise together."
Coventry beat Exeter City 3-1 in last week's League Two playoff final for their first promotion since 1967.