Christian Pulisic and Ross Barkley were the stars of the show in Austria, with the former contributing two goals in eight first-half minutes and the latter providing two fine assists, as well as netting from the spot.
Having begun their domestic campaign at the weekend, Salzburg looked the sharper of the two sides during the early stages as Majeed Ashimeru and Hwang Hee-chan both went close to finding an opening goal.
Chelsea remained second best as the game progressed towards the 20-minute mark, but a stunning spell from Pulisic led to the Blues quickly establishing a three-goal advantage.
The USA international's first contribution came after collecting a pass from Pedro around 30 yards out, before a direct run towards the edge of the area ended with a low shot finding the bottom corner of Cican Stankovic's net.
Two minutes later, Pulisic was hauled down by Rasmus Nissen Kristensen inside the box, leaving Barkley to step up and fire the ball to Stankovic's right.
The England international soon turned provider with a long raking pass finding the run of Pulisic, who expertly controlled the ball before flicking a shot over the advancing Stankovic and into the net.
That proved beneficial for the home side as they quickly reduced the deficit, with Onguene getting the better of Kurt Zouma to power a header past Arrizabalaga from eight yards.
However, while Salzburg remained largely in the ascendancy, Chelsea reopened their three-goal cushion in some style through Pedro, who sent a back-heel volley over the goalkeeper from 10 yards after meeting Barkley's inswinging cross.
Salzburg should have perhaps continued the goalfest shortly after the hour mark when Patson Daka seemed perfectly placed to convert from close range, only for Zouma to get back to clear off the line.
As a result of a number of Chelsea alterations and Salzburg contemplating their second outing in Austria's top flight, the game had appeared set for a quiet conclusion.
However, that changed when Davide Zappacosta conceded a penalty, giving Minamino the chance to fire the ball into the roof of the net from 12 yards.
Chelsea added a fifth moments later as Michy Batshuayi's perseverance inside the area was rewarded with a goal, which came when the Belgian drilled a powerful shot inside the near post from 10 yards.
The scoring continued in the second minute of added-on time as Minamino bundled the ball home from close range, with his initial attempt being saved by Arrizabalaga and rebounding off his leg.
Conceding three goals in such circumstances - three days after doing the same against Reading - will frustrate Lampard, but there are enough positives to take ahead of Chelsea's concluding friendly against Borussia Monchengladbach on Saturday afternoon.
RED BULL SALZBURG (4-4-2): Stankovic (kohn 46'); Kristensen (Farkas 46'), Pongracic (Onguene 46'), Mwepu (Van der Werff 46'), Ulmer (Mensah 46'); Ashimeru (Junuzovic 46'), Samassekou (Okugawa 46', Minamino 75'), Camara (Diarra 46'), Szoboszlai (Bernede 46'); Hwang (Koita 46'), Haaland (Daka 46')
CHELSEA (4-3-3): Arrizabalaga; Azpilicueta (Zappacosta 82'), Zouma, Luiz (Tomori 74'), Palmieri (Alonso 75'); Kovacic (Christensen 81'), Jorginho (Kenedy 74'), Barkley; Pedro, Abraham (Batshuayi 75'), Pulisic (Mount 74')