Lionel Messi's strike at Stamford Bridge had given Barca the away-goals advantage heading into the second leg, and the Argentine was once again instrumental to seal a 4-1 aggregate victory.
Messi scored twice - including his 100th Champions League goal - and set up Ousmane Dembele's first goal for the club in a virtuoso display as Chelsea were made to pay for their errors and profligacy.
Find out how all of the action unfolded courtesy of Sports Mole's minute-by-minute updates below.
Barcelona hold the slight advantage heading into tonight's game courtesy of the 1-1 draw in the first leg at Stamford Bridge last month, but they know from experience that Chelsea are capable of getting a result here.
It promises to be another memorable night of European football, so let's waste no time in getting started with a look at the team news...
Well, we'll start with the home side and the headline news is that Andres Iniesta - hailed as a "genius" by Chelsea boss Antonio Conte prior to this game, does indeed start in midfield having passed a late fitness test just hours before the match.
Iniesta picked up a hamstring injury against Atletico Madrid earlier this month and had been a major doubt for today's game, but the veteran has managed to recover in time and takes his place in a midfield three alongside Rakitic and Busquets.
Much was made of the Argentine's goalless record against Chelsea before the first leg, but his away goal at Stamford Bridge - which was his first strike in nine meetings with the Blues - could prove crucial in this tie.
He has now scored in his last four appearances for the club, after a drought prior to that Chelsea game, and he also has more goals against English opposition than any other player in Champions League history, notching 18 times against Premier League clubs.
Luis Suarez will also be a threat, of course, and he has plenty of history against Chelsea already, infamously sinking his teeth into Branislav Ivanovic during one game while at Liverpool. Suarez scoring twice in his six games against Chelsea during his stay at Anfield, but so far in 2018 he has netted 14 times in 17 appearances across all competitions.
However, the Uruguayan has been uncharacteristically quiet in this competition, failing to score in his last 881 minutes - his longest ever Champions League drought. Indeed, he has scored in this competition since the memorable win over PSG a year ago.
Paulinho drops to a bench which, of course, does not include Philippe Coutinho, who is ineligible for Champions League action having already played in this season's competition for Liverpool.
It is a bold choice from Conte considering Giroud is yet to score a Premier League goal for the club and has not started many games at all this season - including his time at Arsenal - but he has clearly lost faith in Alvaro Morata and the Spaniard is once again left on the bench this evening. One has to question his future at the club beyond the summer if that continues.
That system worked well enough in the first leg of this tie, but Hazard really struggled against Man City recently and it certainly isn't his best position. The Belgian has set his teammates up for a shot on 23 occasions in the Champions League this season - the joint-most alongside Neymar - but he is without a goal himself in his last four, having scored six in six prior to the first leg.
Willian has continued that good form since the first leg too and comes into this match with five goals in his last five outings across all competitions. Six of his nine Champions League goals for Chelsea have come from outside the box, meanwhile, which is more than any other player has managed from range in the competition since he joined the Blues in 2013.
N'Golo Kante will again be charged with keeping Barca's dangerous attackers quiet, while Andreas Christensen once again gets the nod in defence despite some mistakes of late. Antonio Rudiger, meanwhile, has recovered from muscle fatigue to replace Cahill in the side.
The Catalan giants were second best for much of that match at Stamford Bridge and were somewhat fortunate to come away with a draw which keeps them well on track for a treble this season, having also reached the Copa del Rey final.
That form has helped them to build an eight-point lead over second-placed Atletico Madrid, but even more satisfying for Barcelona will be the 15-point lead they enjoy over bitter rivals Real Madrid. If they can also beat Los Blancos to the Champions League title then it will more than make up for last season.
Indeed, that defeat is Barca's only reverse in 44 outings since their season got off to the worst possible start with back-to-back defeats at the hands of Real Madrid in the Super Cup. After those results, and losing Neymar to PSG, not many would have expected Barcelona to be in such a strong position at this stage of the campaign.
Only the always-miserly Atletico Madrid have conceded fewer goals in La Liga this season, while no team can beat Barca's record of just two goals conceded in the Champions League this term - one of which came in the reverse fixture.
A goalless draw or a win tonight would be enough to send them through to the quarter-finals for a record-extending 11th year in a row, although their last two defeats at this stage have come at the hands of English opposition - including a 2005 loss to Chelsea. At this stage last season Barca produced the biggest comeback in Champions League history to beat PSG 6-1 in their second leg here, only to then lose to Juventus in the next round.
Indeed, the August loss to Real Madrid in the Super Cup is Barcelona's only home defeat in their last 47 matches here - a run which stretches back to September 2016 - while their Champions League record is even more formidable with 18 wins and one draw from their last 19 Camp Nou outings in this competition.
Looking even further back, the Blaugrana have only ever lost four of their 39 Champions League knockout games at home, while Liverpool in February 2007 the only English team to inflict defeat on such a stage.
That said, Chelsea have won four of the six European ties in which they have drawn the first leg, including three of the four where the scoreline of that first leg has been 1-1. The most recent of those also came against Spanish opposition, beating Valencia in the 2006-07 round of 16.
So far in 2018 Chelsea have only won five matches inside normal time, with six draws and five defeats in that time too. That includes back-to-back league defeats after their 1-1 draw in the first leg, although they did return to winning ways against Crystal Palace on Saturday.
The Blues are 16 points worse off than at the same stage of last season - leading to plenty of speculation over Antonio Conte's future - although a victory at the Camp Nou this evening would make things look a lot better in West London.
Only PSG and Liverpool scored more goals throughout the group stages, although it should be noted that 10 of their 16 strikes came against Qarabag, and they also conceded eight goals in their six group games.
It is a similar story away from home in Europe, where Chelsea have had an even split of wins, draws and defeats from their last 15 Champions League outings on the road. Victory tonight would see them win back-to-back away games in this competition for the first time since August 2013.
It is a major dip in form from seven wins in their first nine away games this term, and another defeat this evening would see them fall to five in a row for the first time since a run of six came to an end in December 2000.
The Blues have only progressed into the quarters once in the last five seasons and were beaten by PSG at this stage in 2014-15 and 2015-16. However, their overall last-16 record stands at eight wins and four defeats from their previous 12 such ties.
Chelsea have shown that they can get a result here in the past, and they have the tools to be capable of doing it again tonight, but it is impossible to ignore their recent away record, especially considering Barca are so strong at home too. This fixture has thrown up some classic moments and fixtures in recent years, and hopefully we will see more tonight, but at the end of it all I'm backing Barca to come out on top.
SPORTS MOLE SAYS: Barcelona 2-0 Chelsea
The fixture instantly conjures up images in the mind of Ronaldinho's genius goal, Iniesta's last-minute winner at Stamford Bridge and Fernando Torres's breakaway strike in 2012, the latter of which was the last time these two sides met before the first leg.
Only two fixtures - Bayern Munich vs. Real Madrid and Barcelona vs. AC Milan - have been played more often in the Champions League than this one, so it really is one of the competition's great rivalries.
Chelsea, meanwhile, have won four, drawn seven and lost five of their trips to Spain, although they are unbeaten in their last 10 visits stretching back to November 2005.
BARCELONA STARTING XI: Ter Stegen; Roberto, Umtiti, Pique, Alba; Rakitic, Busquets, Iniesta; Dembele, Suarez, Messi
CHELSEA STARTING XI: Courtois; Azpilicueta, Christensen, Rudiger; Moses, Kante, Fabregas, Alonso; Hazard, Giroud, Willian
Messi often makes goalkeepers look stupid, but Courtois really should do a lot better here. Barca get a stroke of luck on the way through as Messi's first attempt at a one-two is blocked, but falls kindly for Suarez, who then plays Messi in down the right channel. It looks like an impossible angle, but Messi sneaks it through the legs of Courtois, who simply has to save it from there.
Lionel Messi scores after two minutes and eight second, his fastest goal ever in all competition for club and country. #fcblive— Gracenote Live (@GracenoteLive) March 14, 2018
19 - After failing to score in his first 10 Champions League appearances against English teams, Lionel Messi has since netted 19 goals in his last 18 games. Haunt.— OptaJoe (@OptaJoe) March 14, 2018
99 Champions League goals 👏— Football on BT Sport (@btsportfootball) March 14, 2018
Lionel Messi doing Lionel Messi things.
A dreadful start for Chelsea! pic.twitter.com/HqKrgG1S2V
The Argentine steals possession from Fabregas on the halfway line before getting his tow to the ball just in front of Christensen and Azpilicueta to send him down the left. He then takes his time and knocks a square ball across the box for Dembele, who takes his time before hammering a brilliant finish into the top corner.
The assist. The composure. The finish. Brilliant.
Ousmane Dembélé has first Barcelona goal 👊— Football on BT Sport (@btsportfootball) March 14, 2018
He smashes it into the roof of the net.
Unreal work from Messi to set him up 👏 pic.twitter.com/VTNneQ5z64
The scoreline doesn't really tell the full story of the game as Chelsea have looked capable of scoring, but the hosts have been ruthless and have punished Chelsea's mistakes to leave themselves in command of this one.
There didn't appear to be much danger at that stage with the angle against Messi to no-one really to aim for in the middle, but he just got his shot on target and it snuck between the legs of Courtois, who should have done a lot better at his near post.
It looked as though the Argentine was going to do it all himself, but he then slowed things down and waited for support, eventually laying the ball into the path of Dembele, who picked out the top corner with a fine finish for his first Barcelona goal.
Chelsea have looked capable of scoring, with Willian, Marcos Alonso and N'Golo Kante all threatening for the visitors. The closest they have come came right at the end of the half when Alonso curled a free kick over the wall which would have left Ter Stegen no chance, only to see it clip the outside of the post.
5 - Chelsea have hit the woodwork five times in the Champions League this season; only Liverpool (6) have done so more often. Margins.— OptaJoe (@OptaJoe) March 14, 2018
Suarez comes forward down the middle but then waits for Messi to join him. He pokes the ball into his path and Messi just makes it look so easy to coast past two Chelsea defenders before again firing the ball through the legs of Courtois. It is his 100th Champions League goal!
100 – Lionel Messi has now scored 100 Champions League goals in just 123 appearances, 14 games fewer than it took Cristiano Ronaldo (137) to reach this milestone. Extraordinary. pic.twitter.com/CfbtoVKb7y— OptaJoe (@OptaJoe) March 14, 2018
The Argentine created one and scored two himself - including his 100th Champions League goal - to fire Barcelona through to the quarter-finals courtesy of a 3-0 win on the night and a 4-1 win on aggregate. Dembele also scored his first Barcelona goal, but tonight it was all about Messi.
Thank you very much for joining Sports Mole for tonight's Champions League clash between Barcelona and Chelsea as Lionel Messi shines in a 3-0 win for the hosts at the Camp Nou, sealing their place in the quarter-finals. I will leave you with our match report, and be sure to stick around for reaction too.
From me, though, it is goodbye for now!