The 21-year-old has made one previous appearance for the senior side, scoring in a 4-2 friendly defeat against Sweden one year ago.
Despite failing to receive a call-up since then, the centre-back believes that he could force his way into the squad if he continues to perform for his club.
"It's important for me to have a good year to have any chance of going to the World Cup," Caulker told Sky Sports News.
"It's important to keep the faith and believe if you do work hard an opportunity may arise to be in that World Cup squad in Brazil."
Caulker was part of the Team GB squad at the 2012 London Olympics.