The 25-year-old has penned a two-year deal for an undisclosed fee with the League Two club.
Akins leaves Stevenage following a two-year spell at Broadhall Way.
"It's a deal we've worked hard to try and conclude, and through it all Lucas was very keen to come and join us," Burton boss Gary Rowett is quoted as saying by Sky Sports News.
"It's an excellent deal for the club and I think he'll be a top signing."
Akins scored 15 goals in 86 appearances for Stevenage during his time at the club.