Gerardo Martino's men were looking to equal Real Madrid's record of nine straight victories to start the campaign, but had to settle for a goalless draw at the Estadio El Sadar, which means that Atletico Madrid can take top spot with a win over Espanyol.
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The visitors dominated possession in the opening 45 minutes but struggled to break down a solid defensive unit, leaving Andres Fernandez with little to do in the Osasuna goal.
Andres Iniesta was the only man to work him with a shot from just outside the box on 20 minutes, although Marc Bartra had the best chance of the half moments before the break when he was left unmarked from a corner; however, the centre-back ballooned his header over the bar.
Neymar was inches from making contact with Martin Montoya's cross in the 57th minute, before Xavi put Cesc Fabregas through, only for him to mistime his lobbed effort and make it easy for Fernandez to save.
Lionel Messi was introduced in the 68th minute and his arrival brought fresh impetus for Barca, but still the hosts got plenty of men behind the ball to frustrate their opponents.
Barca had scored in each of their last 64 matches but saw that run come to an end when the referee brought play to a close in Pamplona.