The 34-year-old was charged with misconduct by English football's governing body having reportedly placed 1,260 bets on football matches over a 10-year period.
Despite being charged in December, Burnley still opted to fulfil their agreement to sign the midfielder in January but could be without the one-time England international for the rest of the season should he be found guilty.
No direct precedent exists for the alleged offence, but with Barton's current deal with Burnley due to expire at the end of the season, any punishment could see his Clarets career come to a premature end.
"We'll just have to wait and see what comes out of it," Burnley boss Sean Dyche said of the hearing on Friday.
"It's something that is ongoing between himself, his team and the FA. We'll have to wait and see what comes of that."
Barton has featured 17 times for Burnley since rejoining the club.