The 29-year-old took the world number one to five sets at the All England Club, and came out on top to reach the semi-finals.
It became clear that Murray was struggling with the hip problem that marred his build-up to the tournament, but Querrey stepped up a gear to become the first American male since Andy Roddick in 2009 to reach the final four of a Grand Slam.
"I'm still in a bit of shock myself," Querrey told BBC Sport. "That last point, I was so happy to get the serve. I'm thrilled right now.
"I didn't start my best but I kept with it, kept swinging away, then really found a groove in the fourth and fifth set and then everything started falling my way.
"It feels great - this is a dream come true, to be in the semi-finals and to have it at Wimbledon makes it feel more special. I'm going to enjoy this win a little bit longer, then have an easy day tomorrow and get ready for the semis."