British number one Robson had only progressed beyond the opening round in the event once in four attempts.
The 19-year-old was considered a significant underdog, as she faced a player who had reached the quarter-finals in London last year.
These two women had never previously met each other on the professional tour.
Find out how the action unfolded below with Sports Mole's blow-by-blow text updates.
3.05pmGood afternoon and thank you for joining Sports Mole for what promises to be an entertaining match on Court Number One.
3.06pmMonday saw four British women exit the tournament at the first hurdle, as Samantha Murray, Anne Keothavong, Johanna Konta and Elena Baltacha all fell by the wayside. Heather Watson was then beaten 3-6 5-7 by Madison Keys earlier today, meaning that Robson and Tara Moore, who faces Kaia Kanepi this evening, are Britain's only remaining representatives in the women's singles.
3.07pmSitting at 38 in the WTA standings, Robson has the pressure of being the highest-ranked British female in the world right now. However, her recent form on the grass has been far from spectacular. She began the lawn season in Birmingham, where, after receiving a bye in round one, she lost 6-3 6-4 to Daniela Hantuchova in her first match. She then defeated Ukrainian wildcard Yuliya Beygelzimer in straight sets in the opening round at Eastbourne, where her progress was halted in round two by fifth seed Caroline Wozniacki, who prevailed 6-4 6-4.
3.09pmWe already know plenty about Robson, so let us now find out a bit about her opponent…
3.09pmMaria Kirilenko, who was voted the eighth sexiest tennis player of all time by FHM in 2011, is currently placed 10th in the WTA standings, which is her highest career ranking.
3.10pmThe 26-year-old from Moscow has been a professional since 2001 and has won six Tour titles. She made her Wimbledon debut in 2003 and, prior to today, she has played 20 Grand Slam matches at the All England Club, winning 10.
3.12pmAs well as reaching the last eight at last year’s Wimbledon Championships, Kirilenko finished fourth in the women’s singles event at London 2012, losing 3-6 4-6 to former world number one Victoria Azarenka in the bronze medal match. However, the Russian did manage to get her hands on an Olympic bronze medal in the women’s doubles event, when she and Nadia Petrova defeated American pair Liezel Huber and Lisa Raymond 4-6 6-4 6-1.
3.14pmAfter losing to Azarenka in the quarter-finals of this year’s French Open, Kirilenko began the grass court season at Eastbourne last week. She beat Bojana Jovanovski and Elena Baltacha before losing 2-6 6-1 5-7 to Yanina Wickmayer in the last eight.
3.15pmAt 5' 9", Kirilenko is two inches shorter than left-hander Robson, who, at 148 lbs, is a stone heavier than the Russian. Both players prefer to play their backhand shots two-handed.
3.18pmThe warm-ups are complete and the start of the match is just moments away.
3.19pmRobson won the toss and elected to serve first. Here we go…
Robson 1-0* KirilenkoKirilenko is gifted the opening point as Robson fires long with an ultra-aggressive forehand. However, the British number one quickly finds her range and, courtesy of some very clean hitting, holds comfortably to 15.
Robson *1-1 KirilenkoRobson produces unforced errors on four straight points to allow Kirilenko to get off the mark with a hold to love.
Robson 2-1* KirilenkoThe Robson serve will be vitally important in this match. And the early signs look good for the 19-year-old, as she delivers an unstoppable ace out wide and holds to 15.
Robson 2-1* KirilenkoKirilenko races into a 40-0 lead, but Robson, with some superb forehand striking, wins her first receiving points of the match to force game four to deuce.
Robson *2-2 KirilenkoRight on cue, Kirilenko finds two much-needed first serves and holds to level the opening set.
Robson 3-2* KirilenkoFrom 40-0, Kirilenko pushes Robson back to 40-30. However, the Aussie-born Brit then dispatches a stunning forehand down the line to regain her first-set lead.
Robson *3-3 KirilenkoKirilenko holds to 15. She has made 10 first serves so far and won the point on every single occasion. The Russian has won just three of seven points behind her second serve.
Robson 4-3* KirilenkoFirst serves are doing the business for Robson too! The Brit, who has won 11 of 11 points behind her first serve, holds to love to edge ahead once again.
Robson 4-3* KirilenkoROBSON HAS TWO BREAK POINTS! First serves desert Kirilenko and she is duly punished as, from the centre of the court, Robson cracks a fierce forehand winner onto the baseline. 15-40.
Robson *5-3 KirilenkoROBSON BREAKS! Robson commits to attack and hammers back a clean winner off a nervy Kirilenko serve. The home favourite breaks to 15 and will now serve for the first set.
Robson 6-3 0-0* KirilenkoFIRST SET TO ROBSON! The World number 38 races into a 40-0 lead, but wastes her first two set points, making the crowd on Court Number One nervy. That nervousness quickly becomes joy, as Robson cracks a huge serve down the middle, which her opponent deflects well wide.
3.58pmThe winner of this match will face Columbia's Mariana Duque, who has just completed a surprise 6-4 6-7 7-5 win over Julia Goerges.
3.59pmRobson was very impressive in that opening set, which lasted 32 minutes. She was the much more aggressive player, making 15 winners and seven unforced errors, while Kirilenko produced just four winners and two unforced errors.
Robson 6-3 *0-1 KirilenkoRobson threatens to break again as she battles into a 15-30 lead at the start of the second set, but Kirilenko shows resilience and holds to 30.
Robson 6-3 *2-1 KirilenkoROBSON BREAKS! The Teenager converts with a wonderful combination play. She manoeuvres Kirilenko out of position with a precise backhand and then ends the point with a ruthless forehand winner.
Robson 6-3 3-1* KirilenkoRobson holds to love. Kirilenko looks powerless to stop the fired-up Brit right now. One feels that if she fails to hang on to her serve in the upcoming game, her tournament could be over rather soon.
Robson 6-3 3-1* KirilenkoROBSON HAS TWO BREAK POINTS! Robson has got inside Kirilenko's mind and the Russian is struggling to hold herself together. The British number one has two chances to secure a double break, which would surely see her progress to round two.
Robson 6-3 *4-1 KirilenkoROBSON BREAKS! Kirilenko hits her way back to deuce. However, crouching down, she then pats a backhand into the net to give Robson another break point, which is converted with a wicked forehand return.
Robson 6-3 4-2* KirilenkoKIRILENKO BREAKS! The Russian reminds us that this is not over yet, as well as just why she is ranked 10th in the world, as she breaks to deuce to reduce her second-set arrears to a single break of serve.
Robson 6-3 *4-3 KirilenkoThe well-tempered British number one comes up with the perfect response, finding two big Serena Williams-like first serves. 30-15.
Robson 6-3 5-3* KirilenkoRobson holds to 30. She has beaten Kim Clijsters, Agnieszka Radwanska and Venus Williams during her fledgling career. Now, she is just one game away from adding Maria Kirilenko to that list.
Robson 6-3 *5-4 KirilenkoKirilenko holds to 15. Robson, who looks deadly focused as she takes a drink during the change of ends, now has the chance to serve for a place in round two.
Robson 6-3 *5-4 KirilenkoConservative first serve from Robson allows Kirilenko to gain the upper hand in the rally, which the Russian brings to an end with a gutsy mid-court volley. 0-15.
Robson 6-3 *5-4 KirilenkoRobson catches the line with a perfectly-placed second serve and then comes to the net to make a sharp putaway. 15-15.
Robson 6-3 *5-4 KirilenkoROBSON HAS TWO MATCH POINTS! Kirilenko's scooped forehand drops wide and the home crowd explodes with excitement on Court Number One.
Robson 6-3 6-4 KirilenkoGAME SET AND MATCH ROBSON - 6-3 6-4! She's done it! A looping cross-court forehand finds the line and Laura Robson makes round two at Wimbledon for the second time in her career.
4.45pmWhat a performance by Robson, whose footwork, power-hitting and temperament were all superb. She will now face world number 117 Mariana Duque for a place in round three. Who knows? If this display is anything to go by, British interest in the women's event could well stretch into week two this year.
4.48pmThat concludes our coverage of this match. I am now off for a punnet of strawberries with cream, because I'm committed to the cause. Good night.