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The 17th seed is hoping to use the final major of the year to kick-start his season and he made light work of his Australian opponent, coming through by a 6-4 6-2 6-4 scoreline.
Ebden qualified for the main draw at Flushing Meadows by defeating British representative Brydan Klein, but he was no match for Dimitrov, who was superb behind his own serve for much of the encounter.
One break was enough for the Bulgarian to take the opening set, before he struck a further two times in the second to move within touching distance of the last 64.
Ebden made a game of it in the third, twice breaking Dimitrov, who began to show a few chinks in his armour, but the Australian struggled to win games behind his own delivery and Dimitrov was able to confirm victory in three sets.