The 30-year-old Italian was heard using insulting language towards Swedish official Louise Engzell during the loss to his compatriot, which saw him crash out of the singles at the first hurdle.
Fognini had progressed to the third round of the men's doubles at Flushing Meadows, but he has now been kicked out of the tournament altogether.
The world number 26 is alleged to have called the umpire a "whore", for which he has also seen $24,000 (£18,500) deducted from his $50,000 (£38,600) prize money for losing in the first round.
"Fabio Fognini is hereby provisionally suspended from further participation in the US Open pending a final determination whether a major offense has been committed during his first-round singles match," read a statement from the US Open.
"The provisional suspension is with immediate effect and, therefore, Mr Fognini has been withdrawn from his upcoming doubles match."
Fognini has fallen foul of Grand Slam authorities before and in 2014 was handed the biggest fine in Wimbledon history for unsportsmanlike conduct.