The 28-year-old posted an unbeatable time of 1:29.307, which is the fastest ever lap for pole at Silverstone.
"It's an incredible feeling. It feels like [my previous Silverstone pole in] 2007," he told reporters.
"The crowd have been great. It such a great turnout [and] that was a lap for them. I hope we can do something special in the race. It's phenomenal because I haven't been feeling 100% comfortable in the car."
It was the 28th pole that Hamilton has achieved.