The USA international spent the first half of 2017-18 at fellow Championship club Sheffield United, where he made 18 appearances in all before being recalled.
Carter-Vickers will now see out this term at Portman Road, providing the Tractor Boys with cover across the back, and he has been registered in time to feature against Bolton Wanderers this weekend.
Speaking to Ipswich's official website, the 20-year-old said: "I didn't expect to be called back [to Spurs]. I thought I would be at Sheffield for the season but then I got told Ipswich wanted me.
"It's all happened very quickly but I know Ipswich are a big club and it's an exciting opportunity for me. I looked at the Championship table and Ipswich are only four points off the playoffs so hopefully I can help the team push on and compete for the top six places.
"I've really enjoyed Championship football. It's a demanding league and there are a lot of big clubs in the division. Ipswich are one of them and I'm thankful for the chance to come and play here."