The Tartan Army have been without a manager since Gordon Strachan left his role by mutual consent in October, and the Scottish Football Association was left searching for a new target after Michael O'Neill opted to remain with Northern Ireland.
Caldwell has taken charge of just 100 games across spells with Wigan Athletic and Chesterfield, but the former Scotland international feels that he would be able to bring "a fresher approach" to the national team setup.
The 35-year-old told BBC Scotland: "If I didn't believe I could make an impact then I wouldn't put myself forward. I don't think that having vast experience is going to give you that much of a difference.
"International football in the past used to be that somebody had a career [in management] and it was one of their later jobs. Nowadays, it's a job for younger people. A new, fresher approach is going to give you more benefit."
Caldwell won 55 caps for Scotland during his playing career.