In the 2016-17 season, Ronaldo helped Los Blancos retain the Champions League, as well as winning their first La Liga title since 2012.
The former Sporting Lisbon and Manchester United prodigy is now level on Ballons d'Or with 30-year-old Argentine Messi, who won the most recent of his five awards in 2015.
Ronaldo also moved level with Messi at the top of the all-time Champions League group-stage goalscorers leaderboard on Wednesday after helping Madrid to claim a 3-2 win over Borussia Dortmund.
2017 Ballon d'Or final standings:
1. Cristiano Ronaldo (Real Madrid)
2. Lionel Messi (Barcelona)
3. Neymar (Paris Saint-Germain)
4. Gianluigi Buffon (Juventus)
5. Luka Modric (Real Madrid)
6. Sergio Ramos (Real Madrid)
7. Kylian Mbappe (Paris Saint-Germain)
8. N'Golo Kante (Chelsea)
9. Robert Lewandowski (Bayern Munich)
10. Harry Kane (Tottenham Hotspur)