The summer signing from Ajax has been sidelined for the past four weeks after tearing a tendon in his thigh.
De Jong is expected to return in January, but the 25-year-old is growing increasingly frustrated with being out of action.
"It is difficult for me to say when I will be fit again," he told Ajax's official website. "The fact I have been made vice captain makes it even more annoying. It's a bothersome injury. I want to help the team and I'm unable to do so."
The Magpies are back in Premier League action on Saturday when they host Leicester City.