With Diego Carlos and Ciprian Tatarusanu both down looking to receive treatment, Nantes kicked the ball out of play, but Payet failed to return the ball from a throw-in and after a corner was won, Marseille were able to score a last-minute equaliser.
Payet has suggested that the two players involved were feigning injury, but Ranieri has accused the French international of failing to act like "a gentleman".
The Italian is quoted by The Mirror as saying: "It was a good match which was complicated. We scored a great goal and controlled the match. Then there was a throw-in. Payet should have given us back the ball.
"That is football - 'long live football'. Gentlemen give back the ball – others don't. They are the intelligent ones."
The late goal prevented Nantes from moving into fifth place in the league standings.